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Author Topic: crystal radio: the first real free energy device  (Read 54117 times)

Offline franco malgarini

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crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« on: February 16, 2015, 10:52:26 AM »
With speaker:







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Offline pomodoro

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #1 on: February 16, 2015, 01:30:23 PM »
I have just built a simple crystal radio for OU research.  Its simply a tuned 'tank' LC , a germanium diode, a capacitor (0.01 for audio  or 10uF for DC), a piezoelectric earpiece and a 56k resistor across the 0.01uF cap as a load  for audio.
 I'm 25km from the AM transmitters.  Using a ferrite rod antenna as the tuning coil only doesn't work well, so an external wire antenna 20 feet long is coupled to the ferrite using the smaller winding normally found on ferrite antennas. The other end of the winding is connected to the water pipes for a good earth.
I can get 1.3V on the 10uF capacitor and no load resistor, it takes time to charge (seconds). Without the tuned circuit, and just a diode there is practically no charging of the capacitor.  Quite amazing, as you would initially think that many more radio waves would be rectified by the diode, instead of just one signal. The large Q of the tuned circuit builds up the voltage for the frequency being tuned.
Power wise only 2-4 micro watts are available at the best load of about 70k. Voltage drops way down, below 1 volt.
The reason I built this crystal set is to try doped (radioactive) galena diodes and small transistors exposed to uranium oxide.  Moray is said to have used similar diodes in a crystal set. The result, apparently, was enough power to make 2000 ohm 1920's horn speakers  usable.

The circuit you describe would only work loudly when quite close to the transmitter. Otherwise there is simply not enough signal.
My simple circuit is actually able to power an 8 ohm speaker directly, but you need to put your ear right next to speaker to hear the whisper!
An  impedance transformer, like the one in your diagram, made the volume very slightly better. 


Offline franco malgarini

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #2 on: February 16, 2015, 02:36:41 PM »
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Offline TinselKoala

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #3 on: February 16, 2015, 03:09:26 PM »
I just use a Slinky spring toy strung across the ceiling of my room as an antenna. This baby picks up enough power from the radio stations to make a green LED light up on the output, at certain times of the day. Not brilliantly but surprisingly bright anyway. The fidelity of the audio is remarkably good, using a piezo element in a plastic spicecup housing or a high-impedance magnetic earphone. I have a potted chunk of lead galena, tickled by a bit of phosphor-bronze wire from an old guitar string, or optionally a 1n34a germanium diode. When you get the right spot on the galena it works better than the diode.

Offline pomodoro

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #4 on: February 16, 2015, 04:16:04 PM »
That's a sweet looking set! Damn clever coupling system too.   I have a slinky somewere ... I've made only two batches of synthetic galena , undoped and set in woods metal.
In the lab, using a nearby signal generator , they produced less voltage on the cap when compared to the diode. I used a very thin strand of copper as the whisker. Any pressure at all and it conducted both ways. I need to try them on a radio signal to be certain before I change the synthesis. Do you need any pressure on your galena? Also, have you measured any shorted I or open v from the galena

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #4 on: February 16, 2015, 04:16:04 PM »
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Offline TinselKoala

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #5 on: February 16, 2015, 05:03:14 PM »
Thanks, the coil set is called a "variometer" and has quite a good tuning range by rotating the inner coil. The inner and outer coils are in series, with contact made in the pivot points. The radio is a version of the so-called "aussie radio" that I found on a Crystal Radio website. Lots of really nice ones there.
I did some research and found that the phosphor bronze wire is supposed to be the best whisker material, it is stiff enough to make a good contact with the galena and holds a sharp point well, and it's the material most wrapped classical guitar strings use for the "wrapping" so it's easy to get a bit from an old, or even new string. I have to use a little pressure, not too much, for the contact, and probe and scratch around for a while to find the best spot. I think that the key is to find a single "diode junction" on the surface of the galena, usually it is in a crevasse or ledge in the crystal. My crystal is a chunk from a not-very-nice "mineral sample" sold to kids for their rock collections. It's embedded in ordinary solder, in a little copper pipecap. Hard to get it to stick properly in the solder, it floats in the molten solder!
I haven't measured the voltage from the galena itself, this is a tricky measurement to make because of the sensitivity of the whisker adjustment. I feed the output into a small stereo amp (mono mode) and the sound fidelity is every bit as good as from a standard powered AM radio tuner. Or use the piezo element or high-impedance headphones for truly "no power" operation. I was amazed when I first put the LED on the output, so I soldered it into the circuit permanently. Sometimes I get the LED bright without hearing any audio modulation, that's strange because I don't know what I'm picking up then.

That's a sweet looking set! Damn clever coupling system too.   I have a slinky somewere ... I've made only two batches of synthetic galena , undoped and set in woods metal.
In the lab, using a nearby signal generator , they produced less voltage on the cap when compared to the diode. I used a very thin strand of copper as the whisker. Any pressure at all and it conducted both ways. I need to try them on a radio signal to be certain before I change the synthesis. Do you need any pressure on your galena? Also, have you measured any shorted I or open v from the galena

Offline pomodoro

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #6 on: February 17, 2015, 01:41:05 PM »
Great info,now I know what a variometer looks like! I will chase down some cheap strings on eBay. Meanwhile I will see if a pn junction in a 2N2222A with its can filled with UO2 does anything out of the ordinary. I just found my stash of 1960s germanium semiconductors. From memory they have some liquid inside, unlike the modern one I just did.  I will find out tomorrow.  According to the Moreland patent an audio amplifier with such a modded transistor melted the speaker with all extra power !!! I may need to invest in 1000w speakers before I attempt the experiment  ;D

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #6 on: February 17, 2015, 01:41:05 PM »
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Offline profitis

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #7 on: February 17, 2015, 01:55:14 PM »
Take a saturated solution of uranium nitrate on some gold or platinum foil.touch a chunk germanium direct onto it(the solution) and see if you get a circuit pomodoro.at least the uranium will be intimately incontact.compare with saturated magnesium nitrate sol.

Offline Pirate88179

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #8 on: February 17, 2015, 05:12:36 PM »
I have always wanted to make one of these but had no place in my apartment outside to string an antenna.  TK just solved that with the slinky idea...brilliant!  I can run it up near my ceiling.

About 5 years back, I bought some germanium diodes but, there is no number on them.  I believe they were what was recommended for my first Bedini set-up. (I have to look up on the schematic to see what was called for)  Will one of these possibly work in making a crystal set?  If so, I have every thing I need to make a simple one.

Bill

***EDIT***  I looked it up.  The germanium diodes I have are supposed to be 1N4001

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #8 on: February 17, 2015, 05:12:36 PM »
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Offline TinselKoala

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #9 on: February 17, 2015, 09:46:42 PM »
I have always wanted to make one of these but had no place in my apartment outside to string an antenna.  TK just solved that with the slinky idea...brilliant!  I can run it up near my ceiling.

About 5 years back, I bought some germanium diodes but, there is no number on them.  I believe they were what was recommended for my first Bedini set-up. (I have to look up on the schematic to see what was called for)  Will one of these possibly work in making a crystal set?  If so, I have every thing I need to make a simple one.

Bill

***EDIT***  I looked it up.  The germanium diodes I have are supposed to be 1N4001

Whaat? 1n4001 is a silicon diode, a 50 V, 1 A rectifier diode. Usually in a plastic DO-41 package. Very not likely to work in a Crystal set.

Most modern era (within the last 50 years, say) germanium diodes are in clear glass packages. They are usually "point contact" devices and you can see (with a magnifying lens) inside the glass to see the little whisker thing from the Anode side making a point contact with the little chunk of germanium on the Cathode side. They will have low forward voltage drops, like below 0.3 V when checked with the Diode Check function of your DMM, usually. (The exact value will depend on your meter, but will usually be half or less of what a 4000-series rectifier diode will read.) Schottky diodes will also have a low forward voltage drop but aren't suited for Crystal Radios in spite of that, except for some special ones. Special, meaning none that I have or can easily get!

By coincidence this topic is also being discussed on OUR. I tested a few of my diodes and reported there just this morning.

There are lots of 1n34a germanium diodes being advertised on EBay, from China, with really low prices. It would be interesting to see if they are genuine.
These at least have a picture that _looks_ like a genuine germanium point-contact diode.... some other listings don't.
http://www.ebay.com/itm/10-PCS-GERMANIUM-DIODE-1N34A-DO-7-1N34-IN34A-/140769037475

Quote from: TK on OUR
I have a few genuine point-contact 1n34 or 1n34a and 1n60, and they measure 0.249 - 0.270 Vf on my diode checker. I found one that measures 0.247, it is marked "12101 3CT". Another has no numbers but has black, gold, red and green color bands and measures 0.257 Vf.

For comparison, a 1n5711 Schottky measures 0.372 Vf and a 1n4148 measures 0.686 Vf, and a 1n4004 rectifier gives 0.600 Vf.

I have some marked 1n270 gold-bonded Ge point-contacts pulled from old TV chassis, they measure 0.252-0.258.

But a 1n5817 Schottky measures 0.181 !!  Testing four others from that batch: 0.178 -0.182 Vf.  A 1n5819 gives 0.220.
Retesting a 1n270 gives 0.256, same as before.

I'm going to try one of those 5817s in my crystal set right away!

Meter is El Cheepo XL830L with smoothjaw gator clips as probes for good contact.

And this testing was all stimulated by an article here:
http://baec.tripod.com/articles/crystal.htm

Offline Pirate88179

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #10 on: February 17, 2015, 10:04:13 PM »
TK:

Yes, your photo is exactly what mine appear to be.  Glass tube and all.  I may be mistaken on why I ordered them..about 6 years ago. I thought it was for the Bedini...but I might be wrong.  I will look at one under my microscope to see if there is any number on them...or...is there a color code for these like resistors?

I think I remember someone on a topic here saying that real germanium diodes were getting scarce and folks should get some before they are gone.  I bought about 50.  Did I send you some in that package?  I might have as they are in the same container as my 2N3055 transistors from my Bedini projects.  I might not have either...it is hard to say at my age...ha ha.

All I know is that I have missed 2 days of work here due to 12" of snow!!!  I do not get sick, vacation or any weather related days so...no pay.  I am going in the a.m. even if I have to walk the 6 miles to get there.  Oh, Thursday, they are calling for up (or down?) to -27 degrees with the wind chill, which is great as I work outside.

Bill

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #10 on: February 17, 2015, 10:04:13 PM »
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Offline Pirate88179

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #11 on: February 17, 2015, 10:28:58 PM »
Here is as close a photo of my diode as I could get.....

Probably not real clear but...best I could do at the moment.

Bill

PS  I just checked one of my Bedini motors...I did use a 1N4007 on them.  I bought a handful of those at the same time.  Sorry for my confusion.

Offline TinselKoala

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #12 on: February 17, 2015, 11:12:34 PM »
Yes, I think you maybe did send me a few of those. They look like 1n60 to me, which is a 100V germanium, similar to 1n34a but just a little higher voltage. Fine for crystal sets.

No, these won't have any numbers or color bands, just a black band or end for the Cathode. The one I've got with the color bands is the only one I've ever seen that looked like that. I don't remember where I got it, either.

Offline Pirate88179

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #13 on: February 17, 2015, 11:31:27 PM »
Yes, I think you maybe did send me a few of those. They look like 1n60 to me, which is a 100V germanium, similar to 1n34a but just a little higher voltage. Fine for crystal sets.

No, these won't have any numbers or color bands, just a black band or end for the Cathode. The one I've got with the color bands is the only one I've ever seen that looked like that. I don't remember where I got it, either.

Thanks.  So black is -, very good to know.  I will try building a simple set once we thaw out around here.  I just checked again, for Thurs. they are now calling for -28 with the wind chill.  Tomorrow is only -9 so, not as bad....ha ha.

Bill

Offline pomodoro

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Re: crystal radio: the first real free energy device
« Reply #14 on: February 18, 2015, 11:26:59 AM »
TK, how far are you from the transmitter? 3V+ and a few mA is quite a huge signal.
I tested a few Ge transistors, using the base emitter as a diode and none give the same amplitude as a 1970s unbranded Ge signal diode.

 

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